反省、或討論這個重要的問題，鄂蘭的《艾緒曼在耶路薩冷》(Eichmann in Jerusalem，以下簡稱EJ) (11) 是一個很好的起點。不過卻只是起點，而非終點，也不是全部的故事。艾緒曼是納粹屠殺猶太人的重要執行者之一；他負責逮捕、運送歐洲的猶太人到集中營。他於1960在阿根廷為以色列的特工所逮捕，立即秘密送回耶路撒冷審判。逃難至美國的德裔猶太哲學家鄂蘭接受美國《紐約客》雜誌委託，前往耶路撒冷旁聽並報導該審判。之後，鄂蘭出版的這本報告書震驚全世界，引起甚多的討論和批評，特別是來自猶太同胞的嚴厲批判。
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Is Evil Banal?
Problems of Obedience to Authority
(Institute of Sociology, Academia Sinica)
Prosecuting the perpetrators of the previous repressive regime is one of the main tasks of transitional justice. As every country varies in its situation of political repression and configuration of political forces in the new democratic stage, the approach to this work also varies. Whatever the approach is, a no less important work is to understand the perpetrators and also the origins of their evil behaviors. This understanding, and also the reflection and lessons which follow, may serve as important foundations for a democratic culture. This paper discusses Hannah Arendt’s concept of “banality of evil” as a starting point. It points out that Arendt is wrong in her understanding of her subject, Adolf Eichmann, as an ordinary person and that the latter had committed the crime simply out of obeying the order. The latter in fact was a strong anti-Semitist, as we now know. Hence her explanation of radical evil in terms of blind obedience to authority is also wrong. She however contributes greatly to democratic culture in raising the issue and challenging the ordinary citizens to face an unjust authority with self reflection and even resitance.